Diabetes is excessive glucose in your blood that leads to serious health problems if left untreated. The American Diabetes Association has created guidelines to screen for diabetes. People with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss should be tested immediately. People older than age 45 should be tested every three years if normal, and people should be tested at a younger age and more often if:

If they are obese.

Have a parent or sibling with diabetes.

If they are from a high-risk group, such as African American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American.

Have given birth to a baby of more than 9 pounds or had gestational diabetes.

Have high blood pressure

If they have low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides.

Managing diabetes requires frequent doctor visits that include regular monitoring of a variety of diabetic factors. The frequency of visits varies as follows:

Daily if just starting insulin, weekly when starting oral drugs, monthly if levels are not stable, and quarterly if levels are stable. Each visit will require a physical of blood pressure, weight, and foot examination. Lab tests are also requirements.

Hemoglobin A1c every three months. This specific test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 3 months. It’s one of the commonly used tests to identify prediabetes and diabetes and is also the key test to help you and your healthcare team manage your diabetes. Higher A1C levels are correlated to diabetes complications, so achieving and maintaining your individual A1C target is especially important if you have diabetes.

A fasting lipid profile is done yearly. This means that you must have your blood drawn only after you have fasted (not eaten anything) for at least 9-12 hours. A lipid profile measurement may be useful to reduce the risk of disease progression and for early intervention. Abnormal blood lipids in diabetic patients include elevated very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and triglyceride and reduced levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). These are associated with obesity and precede the onset of diabetes.

Microalbumin measurement yearly if urine protein is negative. During the microalbumin test, you need to provide a fresh urine sample. The urine sample is sent to a lab for analysis. Results of the microalbumin test are measured as milligrams of protein leakage over 24 hours. Less than 30 mg is normal. Thirty to 300 mg may indicate early kidney disease. More than 300 mg indicates more-advanced kidney disease.

History at each visit will consist of the frequency of hypoglycemia, your results of blood glucose self-monitoring, any changes in treatment, symptoms of complications, psychosocial issues, and any new medications since the last visit. The frequency of blood glucose self-monitoring is primal in keeping sugar levels consistent with where they need to be. You will need to test before meals and bedtime for a person with type 1 diabetes, before breakfast and supper for a person with type 2 diabetes, once daily for a person with stable diabetes, and before and one hour after meals for a pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes. A dilated eye exam and a filament test for foot sensation also need to be done annually or every two years if the eyes are stable. Having diabetes is a lot of work to maintain glucose levels and a proper care team is a requirement in managing the disease.  

Retrieved on November 2, 2022, from: https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/default.htm, https://www.google.com/search?q=Fasting+lipid+for+diabetes&rlz=1C1CHBF_enUS1018US1018&ei=pqNiY5adJqHWkPIPyPm-sAY&ved=0ahUKEwiWiPXs_Y_7AhUhK0QIHci8D2YQ4dUDCBE&uact=5&oq=Fasting+lipid+for+diabetes&gs_lp=Egxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnC4AQP4AQEyBhAAGBYYHjIFEAAYhgMyBRAAGIYDMgUQABiGAzIFEAAYhgPCAgoQABhHGNYEGLADwgIFEAAYkQLCAgUQABiABJAGCEjugAFQ6gdY4npwAXgByAEAkAEAmAFaoAGQCaoBAjE04gMEIE0YAeIDBCBBGADiAwQgRhgAiAYB&sclient=gws-wiz-serp, https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/microalbumin/about/pac-20384640#:~:text=Results%20of%20the%20microalbumin%20test,indicate%20early%20kidney%20disease%20(microalbuminuria)  

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